Turbomachinery Performance

Instructor: Anibal R. Arias
Upcoming Session : Yogyakarta, 19-23 September 2016
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Aerodynamics, Performance Analysis, Troubleshooting & Problem Resolution
• Optimize Your Condition Based Equipment Reliability Program
• Maximize Plant Production & Reliability
• Confirm OEM Performance Guarantee
• Optimize Equipment Utilization

Course Objective

Basic turbomachinery operation and maintenance and easy, practical methods to troubleshoot turbomachinery problems. Improving plant production and reducing maintenance costs.

Who Should Attend

The people attending the course should be technical personnel interested in better understanding turbomachinery (operators, engineers & technicians, reliability specialists, project engineers, equipment specialists and planning engineers).

Course Content Details

Following subject areas are covered over a five-day program. A tentative schedule is shown below.

Day 1 through Day 3 – Turbocompressor Aerodynamics

  • Introduction to Turbocompressors: Some firsts, Definition of compressor. Types of compressors. Relative comparisons of compressor types.
  • Thermodynamics: Gas laws, Thermodynamic relations, Head, Work, Efficiency, Gas mixtures, BWR equations of state, Performance coefficients.
  • Aerodynamic Components: Axial compressors. Centrifugal compressors. Impellers, diaphragms, guide vanes. Interstage seals. Balance piston seal. Impeller thrust. Internal compressor configuration: Straight thru, double flow, back to back, multi-stage iso-cool, side-load.
  • Compressor Characteristics: Centrifugal compressors. Slope. Stonewall. Surge. Off-design operation. Adjustable vanes. Influence of the different operating variables: suction pressure, suction temperature, molecular weight changes, rotational speed, etc.
  • Compressor Design & Construction: Casing, impellers, diaphragms & rotors.
  • Compressor Performance: Head & efficiency evaluation
  • Equipment Selection: Considerations for selecting new equipment and rerating existing.
  • Compressor Operation: Commissioning. Start-up procedure of compressors for different type of drivers: steam turbines, gas turbines and electric motors. Operational cares. Avoiding liquid ingestion, surge and choke. Possible problems when operating outside the OEM performance curve. Parallel operation. Inlet piping.
  • Axial Compressors: Axial compressor components, performance characteristics, reaction, off-design operation: rotating stall, surge & choke.
  • Compressor Performance – Evaluation & Troubleshooting: Head & efficiency evaluation, performance problems, solutions and troubleshooting techniques. OEM shop testing, field test and online monitoring. Gas sampling, Instrumentation, Calculation procedures. Trend analysis. Sample calculations. Special considerations for multi-section compressors: iso-cooled compressors & sidestream compressors.
  • Flex Live® Software: Installation & setup of Flex Live® software. On line monitoring and compressor evaluation using Flex Live® software. Example problems.
  • Case Studies: Aerodynamic problems, iso-cooled compressors, refrigeration compressors, shop & field problems. Compressor fouling, on & offline wash techniques.

Day 4 – Steam Turbine Aerodynamics

  • Introduction to Steam Turbines: Steam turbine purpose, Thermodynamic Cycles, Impulse and reaction steam turbines, Single stage versus multiple stage steam turbines, Different type of steam turbines: Back pressure, condensing, extraction or induction. Relative comparisons, Steam Flex® Software: Installation and setup of Steam Flex software.
  • Steam Turbines Operation: Steam turbine commissioning actions, Start up sequence of operations, Operational controls, Operational problems: internal components fouling; erosion; corrosion. Causes of turbine fouling. Prevention of silica deposits. Removal of deposits, Shut down procedure.
  • Steam Turbines Performance Evaluation: Factors that affect the persormance of a steam turbine, Performance analysis techniques: Valves wide open test; Section parameters evaluation; enthalpy drop efficiency test, Backpressure turbine efficiency evaluation, Condensing turbine efficiency evaluation, Induction-Condensing steam turbine efficiency evaluation, Steam Turbine evaluation using Steam Flex® software. Example problems.
  • On-Line Performance Monitoring of Steam Turbines: Setup and use of Steam Flex® for on-line performance monitoring of steam turbines.

Day 5 – Gas Turbine Aerodynamics

  • Introduction to Gas Turbines: .Gas turbines purpose, Thermodynamic cycles: Brayton cycle. Regenerative cycle. Intercooled cycle. Steam injection cycle. Combined cycle. Relative comparisons, Gas Turbine Types: Industrial Heavy Duty, Aircraft Derivative, Medium and Small Range, Applications, Competitive Advantages, Limitations and Challenges, Worldwide gas turbine manufacturers,
  • The Environment and the Gas Turbine: The environment. Need to reduce NOx and CO from the gas turbine exhaust gases, Cooling of the gases: Water injection, Steam injection, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
  • Gas Turbines Operation: Gas turbine commissioning actions, Start up sequence of operations, Operational controls, Operational problems: internal components fouling; erosion; corrosion, hot corrosion, abrasión, On-stream washing of air compressor deposits, Shut down procedure.
  • Gas Turbines Performance Evaluation: Factors that affect the performance of a gas turbine: Ambient conditions; Water or Steam injection; Inlet and Exhaust pressure losses; Fuel; Heat Rate versus Type of Turbine, Performance evaluation of single shaft engines, Performance evaluation of dual shaft engines, Gas turbine performance enhancements, Gas turbine performance degradation, Compressor performance degradation, Combustor degradation, Turbine degradation.
  • Gas Turbine Condition Monitoring: Methodologies to evaluate the health state of gas turbines.
  • Q & A: Review in detail questions about aerodynamic issues and go over specific questions and problems brought to the training seminar.

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