Reciprocating Compressor : Fundamentals, Configuration and Components

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LEVEL 1 – BASIC – Fundamentals, Configurations and Components – 32 h
Instructor : Luis Infante (view profile)
Upcoming Session : –

Download Course Brochure :  LEVEL 1   

DESCRIPTION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM :
Reciprocating compressor training program intended for companies in the following areas :
• Chemical and gas processing,
• Gas Transportation
• Refining
• Oil and gas field operation
• Engineering projects and consulting

Forwarded to supervisors, engineers and technicians in operation, maintenance, engineering and selection of reciprocating compressors in the process/energy industry.

The overall objective is to increase operational reliability. The courses are geared towards the operator´s viewpoint, and are generic, non-linked to any brand or model while trying to cover the full OEM spectrum.

The other two levels for this training program are  :
Level 2  Intermediate : Performance, Control, Special Types, Performance Softwares
Level 3  Advanced : Diagnostic and Optimization, Valve Behaviour

Levels 2 and 3 correspond to the degree of technical complexity and depth, and are sequential, IE, superior levels require the lower ones.
Program oriented toward large size compressors.

Note: Another training program available in complementary area, namely, Electronic Condition Monitoring of Recip Compressors (200 h). Separate release available.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE LEVEL 1
This course represents the first in a series of three which covers the main areas of knowledge for the reciprocating compression technology.

The course starts reviewing physical key parameters involved in gas compression as temperature and pressures, and others involved in machine reliability as vibration, speed, flow, torque and power. Key compressor parameters as discharge temperature, staging, rod loads, normalized flow, gas power, characteristic curves, valve functioning, are covered to fully familiarize the student with it and to prepare them to next levels, where we provide an in-depth coverage of these topics.

This course summarizes Turbodina experience in evaluations and investigations aimed to solve bearing failures, and will be helpful to focus the attention of the operation and maintenance staff on the key issues related to this. A separate shop is available on this subject.

This course (or equivalent instruction/experience) is required for the next levels.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE LEVEL 1
• Sequentially and completely familiarize the specialized engineer or technician with the reciprocating compression technology.
• Familiarize attendant with the design criteria, applications and behaviour of the most critical components.

SKILLS THE ATTENDANT DEVELOPS 
• Select the appropriate type of reciprocating compressors and components for a given application.
• Understand / anticipate the behaviour of reciprocating compressors before changes in the process and the machine.
• Identify the most likely causes of failures.
• Identify those areas susceptible to improvements.
• Propose solutions to management on repetitive technical issues.
• Address operational emergencies related to compressors, in the absence of management.
• Compute the key engineering parameters for a proposed application.
• Effectively communicate the above, using the appropriate terminology.
• Select the appropriate bibliographic material.

ECONOMIC BENEFIT
• Increased operational staff productivity (added dominion and motivation)
• Increased supervisory staff productivity (avoids having to go to the field in order to take decisions).
• Increased Production (greater availability)

FAILURES WHICH CAN BE ADDRESSED
– High maintenance cost due to engine overload
– Crankshaft failures due to wrong load regime
– Piston Rod breakage
– Valves
– Piston Rings
– Packings
– High discharge temperature
– Human errors

OUTLINED CONTENT
• Basic Engineering Definitions
• The PV Card
• Construction Of Reciprocating Compressors

EXPANDED CONTENT
1 .- BASIC DEFINITIONS OF ENGINEEERING TERMS
• Pressure
• Temperature
• Flow
• Measurement
• Compression Ratio And Discharge Temperature
• Stages Of Compression
• Rod Loads (RL)
Annex 1.1 .- Some Formulas Used In Recip. Compression
Annex A1.2.- Bibliography

2.- THE PV DIAGRAM
• Description Of A Compressor Cylinder
• Sequence Of Events In An Ideal Recip Compressor Cylinder
• Mechanical Work And Power In The PV Cycle
• Characteristic Load Curves
Annex A2.1- Application Of The PV Cards. Some Factors Affecting Recip. Compressor Performance
Annex 2.2 .- Bibliography

3.- CONSTRUCTION OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
• Types Of Compressors In General
• Types Of Reciprocating Compressors
• Foundation
• Frame
• Cylinder Assembly And Configurations
• Distance Piece
• Cylinder Lubrication
• Compressor Valves
• Auxiliaries
Annex A3.1: A Guideline Of Best Practices To Avoid Crankshaft Failures
Annex A3.2: Bibliography
Annex A3.3: References For Images

Wrong Sizing of a Reciprocating Compressor from Luis-Infante